Topographic surveys are performed to identify the map and the figuration of a particular area or land including the features on the surface and superficially below the surface. The features can be trees, buildings, manholes, streets, walkways, or utility poles. It serves for the purpose of designing a base map for any type of construction. It may be needed for showing the easements crossing the property and display perimeter boundary lines. Topographic surveys require benchmarks to which ground figuration is related.
Topographic surveys are performed with the help of GPS and EDM technology. It also identifies the changes which have occurred on the land in a particular period of time. It is considered as the first step in any type of construction as it provides the clear picture of the land. The reason why topographic surveys are so important is that the understanding of the topography of the land becomes highly essential for any alterations in the property or constructing a new structure.
Topographical surveys are useful for homeowners, builders, and business owners looking to expand their property. The area and the materials are examined and every single aspect found or piece of data affects the outcome of the entire survey.
Topographical survey consists of the following steps:
- Establishment of horizontal and vertical control which leads to the framework of the survey.
- Actuating enough horizontal location and elevation of the ground points to extract sufficient data for plotting when the map is required.
- Locating natural and man-made structures that may be required for the survey or other purposes.
- Calculation of distances, elevation, angles, and volumes of the earthwork.
- Finally, the last step is to draw the topographical maps.
In the process, various details about the land are collected to evaluate the life, strength, and value, of the land. Afterward, the accurate dimensions and proportions of the land are calculated. Each aspect is recorded and calculated to its highest possible accuracy. Such precision is required to design the correct map of the land. All these outcomes are useful in determining the correct natural and cultural features of the land.
The complicated processes of the survey, design, operations, improvement and asset management have evolved with the advancement of electronic and computer technology. The development of modeling software, process control software and various other automation tools have transformed the way the industry works and functions.
One such technology which has been increasingly used is 3D laser scanning technology. The primary benefit of this technology is that it greatly reduces the need and instances of follow-up visits and onsite maintenance. It assures safety and improves the chances of future modification. It increases profitability, offers great accuracy, and enables faster turnaround times for projects.
It is used for 3D terrain survey of a proposed upstream or downstream site. The outcomes of the models can be sued for terrestrial and nautical charts and reports. The data used in the development can also be used for seismic evaluations, field development, and site constructions like pipelines and storage facilities. With the use of various laser scanning tools, the surveyor can capture millions of data points which can be imported into a 3D modeling software application for realistic rendered images of the zone or facility.
Three-dimensional imaging also helps in comparing the model with a new design. It can facilitate the detection of errors and weaknesses in the current model. Any deviation from the original design of the structure can be detected easily from a visual perspective. It also allows the surveying team to inspect the numerical data. Any error can be detected easily within hours and corrections can be made accordingly. 3D model can also be used by the engineers and planners to investigate specific details. It helps them to identify the future needs and proportions.
3D laser scanning also provides physical data for asset management activities. It includes quantity surveys, asset documentation, condition monitoring, tank calibration, maintenance support, and intelligent plan modeling. Another benefit of laser scanning is that the amount of data it provides is astonishing. Researchers can perform continuous data analysis as the data is rich and the laser scanned datasets can be revised and worked on continuously.